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Cardiology

Cardiology

Cardiology is a branch of medicine which deals with the disorders of the heart as well as some sections of the circulatory system. The field involves medical examination and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are known as cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine.

Pediatric cardiologists are pediatricians who specialize in the cardiology field. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are otherwise known as cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons, a specialty of general surgery.

However, the cardiovascular system is intricately linked to blood, cardiology is relatively unconcerned with hematology and its diseases. Some obvious exceptions which affect the function of the heart would be blood tests (electrolyte disturbances, troponins), decreased oxygen-carrying capacity (anemia, hypovolemic shock), and coagulopathies.

Specializations

All cardiologists study the disorders, diseases, and conditions of the heart, but the study of adult and child heart disorders is through different training pathways. Therefore, an adult cardiologist usually known as a "cardiologist" is inadequately trained to take care of children, and pediatric cardiologists are not trained to take care of adult heart disease.

The surgical aspects are not involved in cardiology and are in the domain of cardiothoracic surgery. For instance, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), cardiopulmonary bypass, and valve replacement are surgical techniques done by surgeons, not cardiologists. Although, the insertion of stents and pacemakers is done by cardiologists.

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Adult Cardiology

Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiologist in the United States, a 3 year residency in internal medicine is accompanied by a 3 year fellowship in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further into a sub-specialty. Recognized sub-specialties in the United States by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology, and nuclear cardiology.

Important or recognized subspecialties in the United States by the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) involve clinical cardiac electrophysiology and interventional cardiology. While in India, a person is required to undergo 3 years of residency in General Medicine or Pediatrics after M.B.B.S and then 3 years of residency in Cardiology to be a D.M/Diplomate of National Board (DNB) in Cardiology. Per Doximity, the professional network for healthcare workers, adult cardiologists earn an average 436,849 dollars in the United States.

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Cardiology Specializations


  •   Cardiac electrophysiology
  •   Clinical cardiac electrophysiology
  •   Cardiogeriatrics
  •   Echocardiography
  •   Interventional cardiology

Heart Disorders


  •   Hypertension
  •   Cardiac arrhythmia
  •   Coronary artery disease
  •   Cardiac arrest
  •   Congenital heart defects

Diagnostic tests in cardiology

Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiologist in the United States, a 3-year residency in internal medicine is accompanied by a 3-year fellowship in cardiology. It is possible to specialize further into a sub-specialty. Recognized sub-specialties in the United States by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology, Diagnostic tests in cardiology are the approaches or methods of detecting heart conditions related to healthy vs. unhealthy, pathologic heart function. The starting point is procuring a medical history, followed by Auscultation.

Diagnostic tests include:-

  •    Blood Tests
  •    Cardiac imaging
  •    Electrocardiogram
  •    Cardiac monitoring
  •    Cardiac stress testing
  •    Electrophysiology study
  •    Heart calcium score
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